First steps with the Penguin Archive data

Over the last few weeks, Jasper and I have met with Anna and Hannah, the archivists managing the Penguin Archive held by the University Library Special Collections Department, and I’ve had a first stab at processing some sample EAD XML data for a small subset of the collections which make up the archive.

As in the case of the metadata for the Mass Observation Archive that I worked on in the SALDA project last year, the data is held and managed within a CALM data management system, and the EAD data is generated by an export process from the CALM database. In comparison with the case of the Archives Hub, where data is aggregated from diverse sources and systems, this offers the advantage that there is much less structural variation across the documents, as the XML markup is being generated by a single common process. A second benefit is that the data content has been subject to various normalisation/validation processes within the CALM system.

I’m taking an approach similar to that I applied in the SALDA project, taking as a starting point (though we may refine/amend this) the model, URI patterns and the XSLT transform used in the LOCAH and Linking Lives projects, overriding or discarding some of the elements that are specific to the Archives Hub context, and adding (so far relatively few) elements specific to the Bristol/Penguin context. (Aside: in the Linking Lives project, I’ve been doing some work on the transform recently, to fix bugs, to extend it slightly and generally try to make it a bit more “robust” in terms of the range of inputs it handles, so I felt using this version was probably the best starting point – I hope something will be available about that on the Linking Lives blog very soon.)

Also within Linking Lives, I’ve spent some time tidying up the conversion processing, wrapping it up in some shell scripts, driving it from URI lists and adding some capture of (very basic) process metadata. My scripting skills are limited and I’m sure it’s not as elegant and efficient as it could be, but I was pleased to find that I could repurpose that work and get things up and running for Bricolage with a minimum amount of tweaking, and Jasper and I will be looking at getting it onto a firmer footing over the next few weeks.

The Penguin Archive data differs from the MOA data in that it is made up of a large number of collections, exported as distinct EAD documents. However, as noted above, the export process ensures a good level of structural consistency across the set. I think there are some (relatively minor) variations in the “style” of cataloguing, and we probably need to examine a larger sample to make sure the process is coping with that, but so far, the results look pretty good.

Also in contrast to the MOA data, the Penguin data does have index terms applied – in the data I’ve seen so far, personal and corporate names following National Council of Archives’ Rules for the Construction of Personal, Place and Corporate Names. We’ve also had access to a sample of “authority record data” exported from CALM: this gives us access to the name data in structured form, so by transforming this data alongside the EAD data we can add that structured data into the RDF output.

Currently the URI pattern for Persons (and “Conceptualisations of Persons”) makes use of a “slug” constructed from the “authority form” of the name, e.g. the EAD construct

<controlaccess>
  <persname rules="ncarules">Schmoller; Hans (1916-1985); typographer; designer</persname>
</controlaccess>

is transformed into RDF data like the following (I’ve omitted some triples for the sake of brevity as I really just want to show the URI structures):

@prefix rdfs: <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> .
@prefix concept: <http://example.org/id/concept/person/ncarules/> .
@prefix person: <http://example.org/id/person/ncarules/> .

concept:schmollerhans1916-1985typographerdesigner
  a skos:Concept ;
  rdfs:label "Schmoller; Hans (1916-1985); typographer; designer"@en ;
  foaf:focus person:schmollerhans1916-1985typographerdesigner .

person:schmollerhans1916-1985typographerdesigner
  a foaf:Person ;
  rdfs:label "Schmoller; Hans (1916-1985); typographer; designer"@en ;
  foaf:familyName "Schmoller" ;
  foaf:giveName "Hans" .

However, it’s been at the back of my mind that there is possibly some “brittleness” in the URI construction here: if there are changes to the name in the source data (e.g. the addition of a new “epithet” or “title”, or of a previously unknown date of death), when that data is reprocessed a different URI is generated. In principle, we could maintain both the old and new URIs, especially if such changes are rare, but it would be preferable to ensure from the offset that our URIs are based on data that does not change. Within the CALM system the authority records do use reference numbers for identification, so this raises the question of whether those reference numbers might be used as the basis for these URIs. But would those reference numbers offer more stability than the names? Are they stable across any internal reorganisation within CALM, or across upgrades between versions of CALM? Would they survive any future migration from CALM to some other data management system? These are questions we need to explore with Anna and Hannah before making any changes.

Finaly, where there are also some similarities with the MOA/SALDA data is that there are sets of resources which don’t have explicit index terms in the EAD data but for which the names of other entities are present, typically embedded in titles – names of persons in some cases, names of publications in others – which might usefully be linked to things described in other datasets. So one of our next steps is to analyse these cases further and decide whether it is useful/effective to apply some specific/”local” processing to generate additional entities in the RDF output in those cases.

One Response to “First steps with the Penguin Archive data”

  1. Ben Says:

    Who is “I” in “Jasper and I”? 🙂

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